The blood–brain barrier
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic barrier essential for central nervous system interstitial fluid separation from circulating blood. This dynamic separation ensures maintenance of neuronal microenvironment homeostasis against that of the everchanging in solutes and toxin concentration in circulating blood. The blood–brain barrier structure is complex, it has multiple contributors, such as specialised blood microvascular endothelium, neurons, astrocytes and pericytes. Transfer of essential nutrients to the brain and waste products from the brain to circulating blood is tightly regulated and facilitated by a large surface area and specialised transport systems. It is not only the physical characteristics of the barrier that assist in maintenance of neuronal microenvironment, biochemical substances and the high trans endothelial electrical resistance also play a major role.
Circumventricular organs are those parts of the central nervous system lacking the blood–brain barrier. These are essential for optimum central nervous system interaction with circulating blood directly or using neurotransmitters.
Primary or secondary central nervous system pathological states, such as infective and noninfective causes, directly or indirectly induce biochemical mediators that may disrupt and alter blood–brain barrier structure and function.
Understanding of the blood–brain barrier anatomy and physiology assists in developing treatment methods to overcome degenerative and pathological states negatively affecting the central nervous system.
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